Saturday, February 16, 2013

What is Fascism?

"The nation does not live for the sake of the economic system, and the economic system does not exist for the sake of capital. On the contrary, capital is the servant of the economic system and the economic system is the servant of the people."
- Adolf Hitler



THE DOCTRINE OF FASCISM by Benito Mussolini and Giovanni Gentile, 1932

Like all sound political conceptions, Fascism is action and it is thought; action in which doctrine is immanent, and doctrine arising from a given system of historical forces in which it is inserted, and working on them from within (1). It has therefore a form correlated to contingencies of time and space; but it has also an ideal content which makes it an expression of truth in the higher region of the history of thought (2). There is no way of exercising a spiritual influence in the world as a human will dominating the will of others, unless one has a conception both of the transient and the specific reality on which that action is to be exercised, and of the permanent and universal reality in which the transient dwells and has its being. To know men one must know man; and to know man one must be acquainted with reality and its laws. There can be no conception of the State which is not fundamentally a conception of life: philosophy or intuition, system of ideas evolving within the framework of logic or concentrated in a vision or a faith, but always, at least potentially, an organic conception of the world.

Thus many of the practical expressions of Fascism such as party organization, system of education, and discipline can only be understood when considered in relation to its general attitude toward life. A spiritual attitude (3). Fascism sees in the world not only those superficial, material aspects in which man appears as an individual, standing by himself, self-centered, subject to natural law, which instinctively urges him toward a life of selfish momentary pleasure; it sees not only the individual but the nation and the country; individuals and generations bound together by a moral law, with common traditions and a mission which suppressing the instinct for life closed in a brief circle of pleasure, builds up a higher life, founded on duty, a life free from the limitations of time and space, in which the individual, by self-sacrifice, the renunciation of self-interest, by death itself, can achieve that purely spiritual existence in which his value as a man consists.

The conception is therefore a spiritual one, arising from the general reaction of the century against the materialistic positivism of the XIXth century. Anti-positivistic but positive; neither skeptical nor agnostic; neither pessimistic nor supinely optimistic as are, generally speaking, the doctrines (all negative) which place the center of life outside man; whereas, by the exercise of his free will, man can and must create his own world.

Fascism wants man to be active and to engage in action with all his energies; it wants him to be manfully aware of the difficulties besetting him and ready to face them. It conceives of life as a struggle in which it behooves a man to win for himself a really worthy place, first of all by fitting himself (physically, morally, intellectually) to become the implement required for winning it. As for the individual, so for the nation, and so for mankind (4). Hence the high value of culture in all its forms (artistic, religious, scientific) (5) and the outstanding importance of education. Hence also the essential value of work, by which man subjugates nature and creates the human world (economic, political, ethical, and intellectual).

This positive conception of life is obviously an ethical one. It invests the whole field of reality as well as the human activities which master it. No action is exempt from moral judgment; no activity can be despoiled of the value which a moral purpose confers on all things. Therefore life, as conceived of by the Fascist, is serious, austere, and religious; all its manifestations are poised in a world sustained by moral forces and subject to spiritual responsibilities. The Fascist disdains an “easy" life (6).

The Fascist conception of life is a religious one (7), in which man is viewed in his immanent relation to a higher law, endowed with an objective will transcending the in­dividual and raising him to conscious membership of a spiritual society. "Those who perceive nothing beyond opportunistic considerations in the religious policy of the Fascist regime fail to realize that Fascism is not only a system of government but also and above all a system of thought.

In the Fascist conception of history, man is man only by virtue of the spiritual process to which he contributes as a member of the family, the social group, the nation, and in function of history to which all nations bring their contribution. Hence the great value of tradition in records, in language, in customs, in the rules of social life (8). Outside history man is a nonentity. Fascism is therefore opposed to all individualistic abstractions based on eighteenth century materialism; and it is opposed to all Jacobinistic utopias and innovations. It does not believe in the possibility of "happiness" on earth as conceived by the economistic literature of the XVIIIth century, and it therefore rejects the theological notion that at some future time the human family will secure a final settlement of all its difficulties. This notion runs counter to experience which teaches that life is in continual flux and in process of evolution. In politics Fascism aims at realism; in practice it desires to deal only with those problems which are the spontaneous product of historic conditions and which find or suggest their own solutions (9). Only by entering in to the process of reality and taking possession of the forces at work within it, can man act on man and on nature (10).

Anti-individualistic, the Fascist conception of life stresses the importance of the State and accepts the individual only in so far as his interests coincide with those of the State, which stands for the conscience and the universal, will of man as a historic entity (11). It is opposed to classical liberalism which arose as a reaction to absolutism and exhausted its historical function when the State became the expression of the conscience and will of the people. Liberalism denied the State in the name of the individual; Fascism reasserts

The rights of the State as expressing the real essence of the individual (12). And if liberty is to he the attribute of living men and not of abstract dummies invented by individualistic liberalism, then Fascism stands for liberty, and for the only liberty worth having, the liberty of the State and of the individual within the State (13). The Fascist conception of the State is all embracing; outside of it no human or spiritual values can exist, much less have value. Thus understood, Fascism, is totalitarian, and the Fascist State - a synthesis and a unit inclusive of all values - interprets, develops, and potentates the whole life of a people (14).

No individuals or groups (political parties, cultural associations, economic unions, social classes) outside the State (15). Fascism is therefore opposed to Socialism to which unity within the State (which amalgamates classes into a single economic and ethical reality) is unknown, and which sees in history nothing but the class struggle. Fascism is likewise opposed to trade unionism as a class weapon. But when brought within the orbit of the State, Fascism recognizes the real needs which gave rise to socialism and trade unionism, giving them due weight in the guild or corporative system in which divergent interests are coordinated and harmonized in the unity of the State (16).

Grouped according to their several interests, individuals form classes; they form trade-unions when organized according to their several economic activities; but first and foremost they form the State, which is no mere matter of numbers, the suns of the individuals forming the majority. Fascism is therefore opposed to that form of democracy which equates a nation to the majority, lowering it to the level of the largest number (17); but it is the purest form of democracy if the nation be considered as it should be from the point of view of quality rather than quantity, as an idea, the mightiest because the most ethical, the most coherent, the truest, expressing itself in a people as the conscience and will of the few, if not, indeed, of one, and ending to express itself in the conscience and the will of the mass, of the whole group ethnically molded by natural and historical conditions into a nation, advancing, as one conscience and one will, along the self same line of development and spiritual formation (18). Not a race, nor a geographically defined region, but a people, historically perpetuating itself; a multitude unified by an idea and imbued with the will to live, the will to power, self-consciousness, personality (19).

In so far as it is embodied in a State, this higher personality becomes a nation. It is not the nation which generates the State; that is an antiquated naturalistic concept which afforded a basis for XIXth century publicity in favor of national governments. Rather is it the State which creates the nation, conferring volition and therefore real life on a people made aware of their moral unity.

The right to national independence does not arise from any merely literary and idealistic form of self-consciousness; still less from a more or less passive and unconscious de facto situation, but from an active, self-conscious, political will expressing itself in action and ready to prove its rights. It arises, in short, from the existence, at least in fieri, of a State. Indeed, it is the State which, as the expression of a universal ethical will, creates the right to national independence (20).

A nation, as expressed in the State, is a living, ethical entity only in so far as it is progressive. Inactivity is death. Therefore the State is not only Authority which governs and confers legal form and spiritual value on individual wills, but it is also Power which makes its will felt and respected beyond its own frontiers, thus affording practical proof of the universal character of the decisions necessary to ensure its development. This implies organization and expansion, potential if not actual. Thus the State equates itself to the will of man, whose development cannot he checked by obstacles and which, by achieving self-expression, demonstrates its infinity (21).

The Fascist State , as a higher and more powerful expression of personality, is a force, but a spiritual one. It sums up all the manifestations of the moral and intellectual life of man. Its functions cannot therefore be limited to those of enforcing order and keeping the peace, as the liberal doctrine had it. It is no mere mechanical device for defining the sphere within which the individual may duly exercise his supposed rights. The Fascist State is an inwardly accepted standard and rule of conduct, a discipline of the whole person; it permeates the will no less than the intellect. It stands for a principle which becomes the central motive of man as a member of civilized society, sinking deep down into his personality; it dwells in the heart of the man of action and of the thinker, of the artist and of the man of science: soul of the soul (22).

Fascism, in short, is not only a law-giver and a founder of institutions, but an educator and a promoter of spiritual life. It aims at refashioning not only the forms of life but their content - man, his character, and his faith. To achieve this propose it enforces discipline and uses authority, entering into the soul and ruling with undisputed sway. Therefore it has chosen as its emblem the Lictor’s rods, the symbol of unity, strength, and justice. [...]
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On Monday, February 18th on the Realist Report I'll be joined by Sword Brethren of The Mein Kampf Project to discuss the nature of Fascism and National Socialism and how they differ from Jewish international capitalism and Communism.  We will also discuss political theory and political history in the Western world generally.  Tune in for what will surely be an informative and interesting program!

15 comments:

  1. Excellent essay, John!! Ninnys love to throw around the popularized notion that fascists are evil.

    I also really look forward to your scheduled show for Mon, with a discussion about the difference between National Socialism and Communism. Wayne Madsen always pounds the first as being bad and the latter, as good.

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    1. Thanks, Fascism is easily one of the most abused words in the English language.

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  2. Here are two quotes which summarize NS philosophy, at least generally:

    Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf, pg. 111 of the Official Nazi English Translation:

    "The State is a community of living beings who have kindred physical and spiritual natures, organized for the purpose of ensuring the conversation of their own kind and fulfilling those ends which Providence has assigned to that particular race or racial branch. Therein, and therein alone, lie the purpose and meaning of a State."

    Count Von Bothmer, friend of Dietrick Eckart and early supporter of the NSDAP, on the concept of (European) socialism which influenced the NSDAP's philosophy:

    "...the identification of the individual with his community, in devotion and service to an organic whole, the nation."

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  3. I strongly encourage everyone to read Rodney Martin's essay What White Nationalism Must Do to "Break Out"

    http://wvfoundations.org/sitebuildercontent/sitebuilderfiles/whatwhitenationalismmustdoto.pdf

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  4. "The nation does not live for the sake of the economic system, and the economic system does not exist for the sake of capital. On the contrary, capital is the servant of the economic system and the economic system is the servant of the people."

    - Adolf Hitler

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  5. Adolf Hitler personally wrote the Four Year Plan for National Socialist Germany in 1936, and had this to say:

    "Since the outbreak of the French Revolution, the world has been moving with ever increasing speed toward a new conflict, the most extreme solution of which is called Bolshevism, whose essence and aim, however, are solely the elimination of those strata of mankind which have hitherto provided the leadership and their replacement by worldwide Jewry. No state will be able to withdraw or even remain at a distance from this historical conflict. It is not the aim of this memorandum to prophesy the time when the untenable situation in Europe will become an open crisis. I only want, in these lines, to set down my conviction that this crisis cannot and will not fail to arrive and that it is Germany's duty to secure her own existence by every means in face of this catastrophe, and to protect herself against it, and that from this compulsion there arises a series of conclusions relating to the most important tasks that our people have ever been set. For a victory of Bolshevism over Germany would not lead to a Versailles treaty, but to the final destruction, indeed the annihilation of the German people."

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  6. curious...as Germany [Judah] suffered the loss of the flower of the first two generations of the "Jewish" century...

    fascism is a perfectly horrible idea if you're not "Jewish" or "zionist" or "Bolshevik"....

    https://buelahman.wordpress.com/2013/02/17/like-a-violin/

    especially as it might apply to european nations who seemingly could follow the bread crumb trail and find the source of their shared heritage...[Hosea 1:11]

    http://adask.wordpress.com/2013/02/16/the-purpose-of-the-2nd-amendment/

    but do they have the stones

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  7. Probably better to spend less time studying Hitler and Mussolini, and spending more time studying Franco. Franco went up against the communists and won for his Spanish people a measure of freedom for Spain.

    Hitler and Mussolini led their countries to ruin. Italian patriots realized Mussolini was working for the other side, and hung him for it -- as Mussolini deserved as he was an agent for the City of London.

    Unfortunately for Germany, the patriot Germans who could see clearly Hitler was an agent for the City of London never succeeded in hanging Hitler. I guess Hitler was more effecient in stomping down patriotic opposition.

    I don't know what fascination Hitler and Mussolini holds for so many. They led Germany and Italy to defeat -- and that was their plan from the very beginning. Italy suffered less because Italian patriots managed to hang Mussolini before Italy got totally carpet-bombed like Germany was.

    Better off studying Franco, for those fascinated by fascism. Franco was intelligent enough, and patriotic enough, to know what Hitler and Mussolini were really all about -- that's why Franco kept Spain out of WW2. Spain's cities weren't bombed as many Italian cities were bombed, and Spain's cities weren't bombed as ALL of Germany's cities were bombed.

    Franco knew the score. Joe

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    1. I disagree with you Joe, although I think we should study Franco as well. Hitler and Mussolini were not agents for the City of London.

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    2. This is yet another post by someone who does NOT understand history or the geo-politics of the time. Franco would NEVER have won had it not been for the support and intervention of NS Germany (Hitler) and Fascist Italy (Mussolini). Britain, France. FDR, and Stalin all supported the Communists in the Spainish Civil War, FDR wrote the Communists a personal check, see my Essay on Franco on my web site on Franco. As for Franco "knowing the score", this is false. He had barely won the Spanish Civil War in 1939 and had consolidated power, Spain was still in ruins and its economic devistated. Franco did indeed send volunteers that fought in the Soviet Union and Franco gave safe harbor to every German who reached Spain post war, i.e. Remer and Degraile are examples. The statement that Hitler and Mussolini "worked for London", is so nonsensical and out right ignorant it deserves no reply.

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  8. I would like to see a political party called NS-America.

    NS-America would be based on the NSPAP's original 25 points.

    NS-America would seek to promote Freedom and Independence for all. We need a World Union of White Europeans.

    NS-America's ideology would be transmitted though the Education Department of the White European Agency for Freedom and Independence, and by the Joint Distribution Committee.

    It's time is now.

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  9. What does Mussolini mean when speaking of government, "Inactivity is death " ?

    Seems to me the more active a government gets in the affairs of the citizens, the more problems we have. Look at the present day US. Uncle Sam gets bigger and bigger, and more active, with every passing year. The country is in a mess from Uncle Sam's "activity".

    If Mussolini wanted a nation state, why did he attempt to start an empire in Africa? An empire precludes a nation state. Empires invariably become race-mixed, mixed-race sh*tholes. Look at London. Look at Paris. Look at any urban area in mainland US -- base of Uncle Sam's empire. Same thing happened in ancient Rome : A race-mixed, mixed-race sh*thole.

    Mussolini should have kept the Italian military in Italy to protect the country, and leave it at that. Instead, he sent the military to Africa to try to build an empire. All this as a huge war was raging in Europe, and Italy was very vulnerable to Allied attacks. Mussolini's orders to invade Ethiopia was the beginning of the end for him. At that point, alot of Italians realized his words and philosophy of a nation state didn't match up with his talk and orders for empire.

    A nation is a country where the people share the same blood. While there is mixed blood in Italy, there's enough shared blood for Italy to have been a true nation -- if the Fascists didn't then decide to have an empire. Empires are entities with all kinds of various groups of people. An empire can't be a nation state, and a nation state can't be an empire -- at least without destroying itself in the process.

    Better off studying Franco's strategy for government, and the German's ability to give anyone a real good run for the money when it comes to fighting.

    Studying the Italian facists won't be too much help when the SHTF here in the States. The Italian Facists wanted an empire [in that, no different than Uncle Sam ]. Plus, Italian soldiers didn't fight too well during the war. The Italians -- as a whole -- didn't want an empire. They didn't have much enthusiasm to fight and die for an empire. The Italian people didn't want a communist take-over, that's all, not an empire. The Italians felt as if the fascists had lied to them. Joe



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  10. as an american, i don't mind studying revisionist european history. i find it interesting. but a preoccupation with it , makes me want to say, what does all of this have to do with me. i shall never walk around raising my arm and stuff. i shall never walk around with a brown uniform on with red armbands. i do not want any of this type of poltical thought here. this is my land. this all happened in europe. let it stay there. it was not for us. this place is much different. what is wrong with the a country based upon the first ten amendments and the constitution? i simply don't care that much about nazis and fascist. i just really don't. where is peter shank when you need him?

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    1. I hear you, but I think there is a lot to learn from European political movements, especially Fascism and National Socialism. Any American political solution must be uniquely American, of course. But we have a lot to learn by studying these political philosophies, and comparing them to our political history.

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